14 1 月 Definitions of Product Quality Different Approaches to Quality
As human wants are complex and may not be satisfied in a specific way, each user of the product or service makes their own assessment of what quality means to them. “Making it right the first time” is the focus of the user-based definition of quality. E) All of the above are techniques for employee empowerment.
C) Product liability transfers from the manufacturer to the retailer once the retailer accepts delivery of the product. D) Quality-be it good or bad-will show up in perceptions about a firm’s new products, employment practices, and supplier relations. E) Legislation such as the Consumer Product Safety Act sets and enforces product standards by banning products that do not reach those standards. Which of the following statements regarding Arnold Palmer Hospital is FALSE?
The User-based Approach
A) The hospital uses a wide range of quality management techniques. B) The culture of quality at the hospital includes employees at all levels. C) The hospital scores very highly in national studies of patient satisfaction. D) The hospital’s high quality is measured by low readmission rates, not patient satisfaction. E) The design of patient rooms, even wall colors, reflects the hospital’s culture of quality.
Of the several determinants of service quality, access is the one that relates to keeping customers informed in language they can understand. Conforming to standards is the focus of the product-based definition of quality. The definition of quality adopted by The American Society for Quality is a customer-oriented (i.e., user based) definition. A view of quality, wherein quality is the capacity to satisfy needs, wants and desires of the user.
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An improvement in quality must necessarily increase costs. A) material, machinery/equipment, manpower, and methods. Quality is definition of user-based quality a philosophy with various dimensions and can be summed up as ‘doing things properly’ for competitiveness and profitability.
Benchmarking requires the comparison of your firm to other organizations; it is not appropriate to benchmark by comparing one of your divisions to another of your divisions. Deming’s writings on quality tend to focus on the customer and on fitness for use, unlike Juran’s work that is oriented toward meeting specifications. D) if there is no other pattern in the samples, the process is in control.
According to this view, the buyer’s perception of value represents a mental trade-off between the quality or benefits perceived relative to price paid. The user-based approach focuses exclusively on the customer in the determination of quality. The strength of this approach is that it allows the customer the say in defining quality. However, this strength may also be viewed as a weakness.
The reason is that expectations can also be highly varied, and personal, which can be problematic. Furthermore, customers may not be in a position to articulate their expectations due to a lack of knowledge and understanding. The emphasis in the product-based approach is on quality as a precise and measurable variable. Any differences that do occur reflect differences in the quantity of some ingredient or attribute possessed by a product.
We will therefore in the following consider several more sophisticated definitions of product quality. Which of the following is FALSE regarding control charts? A) Values above the upper control limits imply that the product’s quality is exceeding expectations. B) Control charts are built so that new data can be quickly compared to past performance data.
Transformation is not restricted to apparent or physical transformation but also includes cognitive transcendence. Pareto charts are a graphical way of identifying the few critical items from the many less important ones. One of the ways that just-in-time influences quality is that by reducing inventory, bad quality is exposed.
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Arnold Palmer Hospital uses which of the following quality management techniques? A) Pareto charts B) flowcharts C) benchmarking D) just-in-time E) The hospital uses all of the above techniques. The quality loss function indicates that costs related to poor quality are low as long as the product is within acceptable specification limits. Perfection- another way to phrase this is to have process consistency. This definition focuses on the importance of well defined specifications and transforms the ‘traditional’ idea of quality into something than can be achieved by all. Quality is one which confirms exactly to specification and whose output is free of defects at all times.
This approach leads to a vertical or hierarchical ordering of quality. Products are raised according to the amount of ingredients or attributes that each possesses. However, an unambiguous ranking is possible only if the ingredients/attributes in question are considered preferable by all buyers. Quality has been the subject of many and varied definitions. Each definition has both strengths and weaknesses in relation to criteria such as measurement and generalizability, managerial usefulness and consumer relevance.
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Which of the following is not an aspect of reduced costs by quality improvements? A) flexible pricing B) increased productivity C) lower rework and scrap costs D) lower warranty costs E) All of the above are aspects of reduced costs by quality improvements. Companies with the highest levels of quality are how many times more productive than their competitors with the lowest quality levels?
- Benchmarking requires the comparison of your firm to other organizations; it is not appropriate to benchmark by comparing one of your divisions to another of your divisions.
- However, this strength may also be viewed as a weakness.
- Quality is one which confirms exactly to specification and whose output is free of defects at all times.
- A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 5 E) None of the above because quality has no impact on productivity (units/labor hr.).
- Quality has been the subject of many and varied definitions.
- C) The hospital scores very highly in national studies of patient satisfaction.
A product or service that does not fulfill user needs is unlikely to find any users. This is a context dependent, contingent approach to quality since different business characteristics require different qualities of a product. Quality is mostly the business of the quality control staff, not ordinary employees. In contrast to quality as absolute, the value-based approach regards quality as relative to price.
Which of the following statements regarding “Six Sigma” is TRUE? A) The term has two distinct meanings-one is statistical; the other is a comprehensive quality system. B) Six Sigma means that about 94 percent of a firm’s output is free of defects. https://globalcloudteam.com/ C) The Six Sigma program was developed by Toyota in the 1970s. D) The Six Sigma program is for manufacturing firms and is not applicable to services. E) Six Sigma certification is granted by the International Standards Organization .
The Product-based Approach
In this article, the author reviews and synthesizes the varying definitions of product quality arising from philosophy, economics, marketing, and operations management. He then goes on to build an eight-dimensional framework to elaborate on these definitions. Using this framework, he addresses the empirical relationships between quality and variables such as price, advertising, market share, cost, and profitability. According to this approach, the title ‘quality’ should only be attributed to those products and services that achieve the highest standards. Unlike the Greeks in ancient times philosophizing over the concept of quality, practitioners in the world of business seek something much more practical. For them quality should be capable of implementation, delivery and measurement.
A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 5 E) None of the above because quality has no impact on productivity (units/labor hr.). Security is the determinant of service quality that means freedom from danger, risk, or doubt. TQM is important because each of the ten decisions made by operations managers deals with some aspect of identifying and meeting customer expectations. This approach starts from the premise that quality ‘lies in the eyes of the beholder’.
The Manufacturing-based Approach
Ice is transformed into water and eventually steam if it experiences increase of temperature. While the increase in temperature can be measured the transformation involves a qualitative change. Ice has different qualities to that of steam and water.
Which of the four major categories of quality costs is particularly hard to quantify? A) prevention costs B) appraisal costs C) internal failure costs D) external failure costs E) None is hard to quantify. Products are designed and manufactured according to predetermined specifications. Quality control techniques help to detect deviations from the specification. A) Self-promotion is not a substitute for quality products. B) Inferior products harm a firm’s profitability and a nation’s balance of payments.
Five Approaches to Defining Quality
I will ask my customers, what is important to them, and act accordingly. In the case of services, the measuring of quality may be more difficult. Quality can improve profitability by reducing costs.